© 2002-2014    This Site Created and Maintained by Terry R. Wolff

Please note that when placing your order on-line that all shipping prices are to the continental United States.
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© 2002-2014    This Site Created and Maintained by Terry R. Wolff

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Please note that when placing your order on-line that all shipping prices are to the continental United States.
If your order is being shipped else where or there is and asterisk (*) by the price indicating additional freight costs, we will notify you as to what your additional fee will be so you can make your payment before we process your order.
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Welcome to Linda and Terry Wolff’s

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NOW YOU CAN FINANCE YOUR SOLAR PROJECT BY LEASING IT.

We have teamed up with BALBOA CAPITAL so you can
now lease your purchase of $3,000 or more when you qualify.


HOW TO APPLY

PV Modules

Solar Panels (Photovoltaic Modules) are energy generators.  A PV Cell which is a semiconductor that releases a flow of electrons (electric current) when light (photons) hits it.  When dozens of these PV Cells are wired to together they are called a PV Module or Solar Panel.  When two or more Solar Panels are wired together they are referred to as a Solar Array.
Solar Panels convert the energy from the sun into DC Electric Current which is either stored in Solar Storage Batteries, used directly to run DC items such as Well Pumps or other DC Appliances, or it is Inverted into AC Current and sold back to your local utility.

We offer Solar Panels from a number of different manufactures and in a variety of sizes to meet your solar projects needs. Below you will find a listing by brand names.

PV modules are rated at Standard Test Conditions (STC). These are almost perfect conditions in which full sun is shinning straight on the module and the module temperature is 77 deg F.  These conditions actually occur in the winter for a few hours on clear days, but are not a complete picture of the module's performance year round in a real life situation.  

Another standard is being used (PTC) which measures air temperature (usually a module is much hotter than the surrounding air). Modules are usually derated from 10% to 25% under this rating system.

There are three basic types of PV Cells which make up a Solar Panel.


Single Crystal: (monocrystalline) Each cell is made of a single crystal of silicone. Our best modules are made with this type of cell. They are the most efficient, perform the best in most conditions, and last the longest.They cost more, but are worth it. The first single crystal solar cells made by Bell labs in the 1950s still produce electricity!




Multi Crystal: (polycrystalline) Each cell is made of many crystals. They work well and are cheaper.




Amorphous: these cells are grown without crystals at all. They are good for specialty applications like roofing or RVs, because they can work if shaded, and can bend. They can deteoriate in sunlight and are the least efficient.


Cell Structure

Brand Samples

Performance in the below conditions

Warranties

Early Morning &

Late Afternoon

Part

Shaded

Hot

Weather

Single Crystal

Solar World

SunModule

Best

Poor

Best

25 years to 90%

Muti Crystal

BP

Photowatt

Kyocera

Ok

Poor

Ok

20 years to 90%

Amorphous

Unisolar

Good

Ok

Good

20 year to 80%

Its easiest to compare modules on a dollars per watt basis. (Divide the module's price by its power rating) Just because one module is cheaper than another means nothing without comparing the OUR PRICE per watt. Also mono crystalline is worth 10% more per watt, because it will make more power throughout the day and throughout the year than the same wattage module in polycrystalline.

Wiring Modules

Solar modules are wired in different combinations to get the voltage & current needed. They are wired in series to increase voltage; up to 30 modules can be strung together for voltages as high as 600 v (the highest voltage most modules are rated for). The voltages of each module are added together. (see Wiring Diagrams for series and parallel wiring)

Modules are also paralleled to increase current. The voltage stays the same, but their currents are added. Some 12 volt systems can have dozens of modules in parallel for currents close to 100 amps. To avoid too much current in a single module that can overheat and melt connectors, the modules are wired into subarrays. Each subarray carries as much current as the modules are designed for including a safety factor. This factor includes both a 25% safety factor and a 25% factor in case the modules produce more than their rated power in special sunlight conditions (see edge of cloud effect in glossary).

Example:
If a module's series fuse rating is 20 amps, then you divide that by the combined safety factor of 1.56. so you could safely wire 12.8 amps of modules together in parallel. If each module's short circuit current is 4.2 amps, then you could parallel 3 modules. Regardless, we don't recommend ever wiring more than 4 modules in parallel in one sub-array, and some inspectors don't allow any parallel wiring within a sub-array.

Module Rating

Description

Maximum Power

Pmax

The most watts produced by a module under standard test conditions. In Real life conditions a module may make only 80 to 90% of this rating, due to heat, dirt, wire losses, and the fact that the module may be operating at lower voltage.

Voltage(max power)

Vmp

The voltage at which a module makes its most power. (For example, a 12 volt nominal module, Vmp can be as high as 17 volts.)

Voltage (open circuit)

Voc

The module's highest voltage at no current. (A 12 volt nominal module may go over 22volts)

Amps (max power)

Amp

The current at the module's Max Power Point. (usually around 90% of short circuit current)

Amps (short circuit)

Asc

The highest current the module can make at no voltage.

Maximum series Fuse

The largest amp fuse or breaker to use with the module.  (modules with a higher rating, can be paralleled in some cases to save on wiring and breakers)